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End-to-End Tutorial to Set Up and Play TicTacToe on Sui

In this tutorial, we demonstrate the end-to-end process for starting a Sui network locally, connecting to it through our CLI client app, publishing a TicTacToe game written in Move on Sui, and playing it to the end.

Set up

  1. Install Sui binaries and download Sui source code .
  2. Create Sui genesis by running the sui genesis command.
  3. Start the Sui network by running the sui start command.

After completing these steps, you will have a running local Sui instance and the sui client command used in the remainder of this tutorial in your path. Simply leave the terminal with Sui running and start a new terminal for the remainder of this tutorial.

This tutorial models gas fees under a simplified schema. In practice, the Sui network will charge for gas using its native currency SUI. This transaction fee equals the computational effort of executing operations on the Sui network (i.e. gas units) times the price of gas in the SUI currency (i.e. the gas price).

Gather accounts and gas objects

In that new terminal, let us take a look at the account addresses we own in our CLI client with the command:

$ sui client addresses

Which will result in output resembling:

Showing 5 results.
ECF53CE22D1B2FB588573924057E9ADDAD1D8385
7B61DA6AACED7F28C1187D998955F10464BEAE55
251CF224B6BA3A019D04B6041357C20490F7A322
DB4C7667636471AFF396B900EB7B63FACAF629B6
A6BBB1930E01495EE93CE912EA01C29695E07890

Note that since these addresses are random generated, they will be different from what you see. We are going to need three addresses to play TicTacToe. Let's pick the first three addresses. Let's call them ADMIN, PLAYER_X and PLAYER_O. Since we will be using these addresses and gas objects repeatedly in the rest of this tutorial, let's make them environment variables so that we don't have to retype them every time:

$ export ADMIN=ECF53CE22D1B2FB588573924057E9ADDAD1D8385
export PLAYER_X=7B61DA6AACED7F28C1187D998955F10464BEAE55
export PLAYER_O=251CF224B6BA3A019D04B6041357C20490F7A322

For each of these addresses, let's discover their gas objects for each account address:

$ sui client gas --address $ADMIN
                Object ID                 |  Version   |  Gas Value
----------------------------------------------------------------------
 38B89FE9F4A4823F1406938E87A8767CBD7F0B93 |     0      |   100000
 4790500A28AB5B4F9A3988E2A5E201D56996CBB0 |     0      |   100000
 6AB7D15F41B28FF1EBF6D32499214BBD9035D1EB |     0      |   100000
 800F2704E22637A036C4325B539D711BB83CA6C2 |     0      |   100000
 D2F52301D5343DD2C1FA076401BC6283C3E4AA34 |     0      |   100000
$ sui client gas --address $PLAYER_X
                Object ID                 |  Version   |  Gas Value
----------------------------------------------------------------------
 6F675038CAA48184707DBBE95ACFBA2030E87CD8 |     0      |   100000
 80C91F0B31EFBC1C7BF639A531301AAF3A1D3AB6 |     0      |   100000
 9FED1FC3D21F284DC53DE87C0E19718971D96D8C |     0      |   100000
 E293F935F015C23216867442DB4E712518E7CAB7 |     0      |   100000
 F19384C06AE538F9C3C9D9762002B4DAEA49FE3A |     0      |   100000
$ sui client gas --address $PLAYER_O
                Object ID                 |  Version   |  Gas Value
----------------------------------------------------------------------
 2110ADFB7BAF889A05EA6F5889AF7724299F9BED |     0      |   100000
 8C04A5D8D62155B9E90093D6CB300DA304B9E581 |     0      |   100000
 9602B7C0869E7E5AB314FB3D99395A8C640E0E34 |     0      |   100000
 A0DBF58C3801EC2FEDA1D039E190A6B31A25B199 |     0      |   100000
 D5EBB8A19A35874A18B7A1D883EBFC8D897F5693 |     0      |   100000

We only need one gas object per account address. So let's pick the first gas object of each account. In the above example, it's 38B89FE9F4A4823F1406938E87A8767CBD7F0B93, 6F675038CAA48184707DBBE95ACFBA2030E87CD8 and 2110ADFB7BAF889A05EA6F5889AF7724299F9BED, respectively. Again, you will see different IDs. Let's also add them to our environment variables:

$ export ADMIN_GAS=38B89FE9F4A4823F1406938E87A8767CBD7F0B93
export X_GAS=6F675038CAA48184707DBBE95ACFBA2030E87CD8
export O_GAS=2110ADFB7BAF889A05EA6F5889AF7724299F9BED

Publish the TicTacToe game on Sui

To keep this tutorial simple, use the TicTacToe game we implemented in tic_tac_toe.move.

Find even more examples in the Sui repository. Of course, you are welcome to write your own package.

To publish the game, we run the publish command and specify the path to the source code of the game package:

$ sui client publish --path ./sui/sui_programmability/examples/games --gas $ADMIN_GAS --gas-budget 30000

Which will yield results resembling:

----- Certificate ----
Signed Authorities : ...
Transaction Kind : Publish
Gas Budget : 30000
----- Publish Results ----
The newly published package object: (A613A7FF8CB03E0DFC0D157E232BBA50C5F19D17, SequenceNumber(1), o#fb70b9d1ac25250a00e35031289f89cd9c9d739f8663e1cc8ed739095a104e68)
List of objects created by running module initializers: []
Updated Gas : Coin { id: 38B89FE9F4A4823F1406938E87A8767CBD7F0B93, value: 92939 }

As we can see, the package was successfully published. Some gas was charged: the initial gas value was 100000, now it's 92939 (note: the current gas charging mechanism is rather arbitrary, we will come up with a gas mechanism shortly). The newly published package has the ID A613A7FF8CB03E0DFC0D157E232BBA50C5F19D17. Note that this ID will also be different in your terminal. We add the package to another environment variable:

export PACKAGE=A613A7FF8CB03E0DFC0D157E232BBA50C5F19D17

Playing TicTacToe

As we mentioned earlier, we will need 3 parties to participate in this game: Admin, PlayerX and PlayerO. As a high level, the game works as following:

  1. The admin creates a game, which also specifies the addresses of the two players. This will also create two capability objects and send to each of the addresses to give them permission to participate in the same game. This ensures that an arbitrary person cannot attempt to join this game.
  2. Each player takes turns to send a Mark object to the admin indicating where they want to place their mark.
  3. The admin, upon receiving marks (in practice, this is done through monitoring events), places the mark to the gameboard.
  4. (2) and (3) repeats until game ends.

Because the admin owns the gameboard, each individual player cannot place a mark directly on the gameboard (they don't own the object, and hence cannot mutate it, see Object Model), each mark placement is split to 2 steps, that each player first sends a mark, and then the admin places the mark. A sample gameplay can also be found in the tic_tac_toe_tests file.

Now let's begin the game! First of all, let's create a game with the command:

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function create_game --args $PLAYER_X $PLAYER_O --gas $ADMIN_GAS --gas-budget 1000

You will see output like:

----- Certificate ----
Signed Authorities : ...
Transaction Kind : Call
Gas Budget : 1000
Package ID : 0xa613a7ff8cb03e0dfc0d157e232bba50c5f19d17
Module : TicTacToe
Function : create_game
Object Arguments : []
Pure Arguments : [[123, 97, 218, 106, 172, 237, 127, 40, 193, 24, 125, 153, 137, 85, 241, 4, 100, 190, 174, 85], [37, 28, 242, 36, 182, 186, 58, 1, 157, 4, 182, 4, 19, 87, 194, 4, 144, 247, 163, 34]]
Type Arguments : []
----- Transaction Effects ----
Status : Success { gas_used: 284 }
Created Objects:
5851B7EA07B93E68696BC0CF811D2E266DFB880D SequenceNumber(1) o#02b1de02a055a8edb62c7677652f3ff1d92b40202504bd2da50e8d900b266a8e
A6D3B507D4533822E690291166891D42694A2721 SequenceNumber(1) o#930533ef8b324909c65d3586c73a6db1b7ee116704d6bc986a2c3a8f51d8bf10
F1B8161BD97D3CD6627E739AD675089C5ACFB452 SequenceNumber(1) o#1c92bdf7646cad2a65357fadf60605abc1669dfaa2de0a08709b706ac4b69c8f
Mutated Objects:
38B89FE9F4A4823F1406938E87A8767CBD7F0B93 SequenceNumber(2) o#26dbaf7ec2032a6270a45498ad46ac0b1ddbc361fcff20cadafaf5d39b8181b1

The above call created three objects. For each object, it printed out a tuple of three values (object_id, version, object_digest). Object ID is what we care about here. Since we don't have a real application here to display things for us, we need a bit of object printing magic to figure out which object is which. Let's print out the metadata of each created object (replace the object ID with what you see on your screen):

$ sui client object --id 5851B7EA07B93E68696BC0CF811D2E266DFB880D
Owner: AddressOwner(k#251cf224b6ba3a019d04b6041357c20490f7a322)
Version: 1
ID: 5851B7EA07B93E68696BC0CF811D2E266DFB880D
Readonly: false
Type: 0xa613a7ff8cb03e0dfc0d157e232bba50c5f19d17::TicTacToe::MarkMintCap

$ sui client object --id A6D3B507D4533822E690291166891D42694A2721
Owner: AddressOwner(k#7b61da6aaced7f28c1187d998955f10464beae55)
Version: 1
ID: A6D3B507D4533822E690291166891D42694A2721
Readonly: false
Type: 0xa613a7ff8cb03e0dfc0d157e232bba50c5f19d17::TicTacToe::MarkMintCap

$ sui client object --id F1B8161BD97D3CD6627E739AD675089C5ACFB452
Owner: AddressOwner(k#ecf53ce22d1b2fb588573924057e9addad1d8385)
Version: 1
ID: F1B8161BD97D3CD6627E739AD675089C5ACFB452
Readonly: false
Type: 0xa613a7ff8cb03e0dfc0d157e232bba50c5f19d17::TicTacToe::TicTacToe

There are two MarkMintCap objects (for capability of minting a mark for each player) and a TicTacToe object (the game object). Take a look at each of the Owner fields, and you will see that:

  1. MarkMintCap Object 5851B7EA07B93E68696BC0CF811D2E266DFB880D is owned by PLAYER_O.
  2. MarkMintCap Object A6D3B507D4533822E690291166891D42694A2721 is owned by PLAYER_X.
  3. TicTacToe Object F1B8161BD97D3CD6627E739AD675089C5ACFB452 is owned by ADMIN.

We add the above three object IDs to these environment variables:

$ export XCAP=A6D3B507D4533822E690291166891D42694A2721
export OCAP=5851B7EA07B93E68696BC0CF811D2E266DFB880D
export GAME=F1B8161BD97D3CD6627E739AD675089C5ACFB452

By convention, Player X goes first. Player X wants to put a mark at the center of the gameboard ((1, 1)). This needs to take two steps. First Player X creates a Mark object with the placement intention and send it to the admin. We will call the send_mark_to_game function in TicTacToe, whose signature looks like this:

public entry fun send_mark_to_game(cap: &mut MarkMintCap, game_address: address, row: u64, col: u64, ctx: &mut TxContext);

The cap argument will be Player X's capability object (XCAP), and game_address argument will be the admin's address (ADMIN):

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function send_mark_to_game --args $XCAP $ADMIN 1 1 --gas $X_GAS --gas-budget 1000

And its output:

----- Certificate ----
Signed Authorities : ...
Transaction Kind : Call
Gas Budget : 1000
Package ID : 0xa613a7ff8cb03e0dfc0d157e232bba50c5f19d17
Module : TicTacToe
Function : send_mark_to_game
Object Arguments : [(A6D3B507D4533822E690291166891D42694A2721, SequenceNumber(1), o#930533ef8b324909c65d3586c73a6db1b7ee116704d6bc986a2c3a8f51d8bf10)]
Pure Arguments : [[236, 245, 60, 226, 45, 27, 47, 181, 136, 87, 57, 36, 5, 126, 154, 221, 173, 29, 131, 133], [1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]]
Type Arguments : []
----- Transaction Effects ----
Status : Success { gas_used: 102 }
Created Objects:
AE3CE9176F1A8C1F21D922722486DF667FA00394 SequenceNumber(1) o#d40c0e3c74a2badd60c754456f0b830348bf7df629b0762e8b841c7cab5f4b2e
Mutated Objects:
...

The above call created a Mark object, with ID AE3CE9176F1A8C1F21D922722486DF667FA00394, and it was sent to the admin. The admin can now place the mark on the gameboard. The function to place the mark looks like this:

public entry fun place_mark(game: &mut TicTacToe, mark: Mark, ctx: &mut TxContext);

The first argument is the game board, and the second argument is the mark the admin just received from the player. We will call this function (replace the second argument with the Mark object ID above):

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function place_mark --args $GAME 0xAE3CE9176F1A8C1F21D922722486DF667FA00394 --gas $ADMIN_GAS --gas-budget 1000

The gameboard now looks like this (this won't be printed out, so keep it in your imagination):

_|_|_
_|X|_
 | |

Player O now tries to put a mark at (0, 0):

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function send_mark_to_game --args $OCAP $ADMIN 0 0 --gas $O_GAS --gas-budget 1000

With output like:

----- Certificate ----
...
----- Transaction Effects ----
Status : Success { gas_used: 102 }
Created Objects:
7A16D266DAD41145F34649258BC1F744D147BF2F SequenceNumber(1) o#58cb018be98dd828c10f5b2045329f6ec4dab56c5a90e719ad225f0bc195908a
...

Note, in this second call, the second argument comes from the created objects in the first call.

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function place_mark --args $GAME 0x7A16D266DAD41145F34649258BC1F744D147BF2F --gas $ADMIN_GAS --gas-budget 1000

With output like:

----- Certificate ----
...
----- Transaction Effects ----
Status : Success { gas_used: 679 }
...

The gameboard now looks like this:

O|_|_
_|X|_
 | |

Player X puts a mark at (0, 2):

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function send_mark_to_game --args $XCAP $ADMIN 0 2 --gas $X_GAS --gas-budget 1000

With output like:

----- Certificate ----
...
----- Transaction Effects ----
Status : Success { gas_used: 102 }
Created Objects:
2875D50BD9021ED2009A1278C7CB6D4C876FFF6A SequenceNumber(1) o#d4371b72e77bfc07bd088a9113ef7bf870198066649f6c9e9e4abf5f7a7fbd2a
...

Then run:

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function place_mark --args $GAME 0x2875D50BD9021ED2009A1278C7CB6D4C876FFF6A --gas $ADMIN_GAS --gas-budget 1000

The gameboard now looks like this:

O|_|X
_|X|_
 | |

Player O places a mark at (1, 0):

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function send_mark_to_game --args $OCAP $ADMIN 1 0 --gas $O_GAS --gas-budget 1000

With output like:

----- Certificate ----
...
----- Transaction Effects ----
Status : Success { gas_used: 102 }
Created Objects:
4F7391F172063D87013DD9DC95B8BD45C35FD2D9 SequenceNumber(1) o#ee7ba8ea66e574d7636e159da9f33c96d724d71f141a57a1e4929b2b928c298d
...

Now run:

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function place_mark --args $GAME 0x4F7391F172063D87013DD9DC95B8BD45C35FD2D9 --gas $ADMIN_GAS --gas-budget 1000
...

The gameboard now looks like:

O|_|X
O|X|_
 | |

This is a chance for Player X to win! X now mints the winning mark at (2, 0):

$ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function send_mark_to_game --args $XCAP $ADMIN 2 0 --gas $X_GAS --gas-budget 1000

And its output:

----- Certificate ----
...
----- Transaction Effects ----
Status : Success { gas_used: 102 }
Created Objects:
AA7A6624E16E5E447801462FF6614013FC4AD156 SequenceNumber(1) o#e5e1b15f03531db118efaa9667244b876f32e7ad2cc17bdbc7d4cb1eaca1560d
...

And then finally the admin places the winning mark:

   $ sui client call --package $PACKAGE --module TicTacToe --function place_mark --args $GAME 0xAA7A6624E16E5E447801462FF6614013FC4AD156 --gas $ADMIN_GAS --gas-budget 1000

With output:

----- Certificate ----
...
----- Transaction Effects ----
Status : Success { gas_used: 870 }
Created Objects:
54B58C0D5B14A269B1CD424B3CCAB1E315C43343 SequenceNumber(1) o#7a093db738f6708c33d264d023c0eb07bcd9d22f038dbdcf1cbfdad50b0c1e42
Mutated Objects:
...

Cool! The last transaction created a new object. Let's find out what object was created:

$ sui client object --id 54B58C0D5B14A269B1CD424B3CCAB1E315C43343

See output resembling:

Owner: AddressOwner(k#7b61da6aaced7f28c1187d998955f10464beae55)
Version: 1
ID: 54B58C0D5B14A269B1CD424B3CCAB1E315C43343
Readonly: false
Type: 0xa613a7ff8cb03e0dfc0d157e232bba50c5f19d17::TicTacToe::Trophy

PlayerX has received a Trophy object and hence won the game!

This concludes the tutorial.

Last update 6/30/2022, 6:01:14 PM

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